Georgia is a small country but it is one of the ancient states in the world that has its unique alphabeth. Unfortunately, a considerable part of its territory has been occupied. The country lacks the experience in building the market economy. Interesting economic thoughts originated in Georgia in various historical epochs, which still deserve close attention. In particular, the feudal age in Georgia gave way to multiple economic thoughts that are still significant these days. One of them is a Code of Laws of Beka and Agbug (XIII-XIV cc.) published in Georgian, which, first of all, covers the issues of regional governance. Some mercantilist ideas expressed in the Code precede the creation of the School of Mercantilism. The Code is an important historical source for market economy researchers, because it determined several essential issues of the economy in general, and agriculture, industry and financial-credit relations, in particular. The Code includes several noteworthy opinions concerning the possibility to hire a labour force and labour remuneration, which to some extent was an innovation for the thinking of that age. Economic ideas expressed in one of the important written sources of Georgian (and not only Georgian) economic thinking correspond not only to regional interests, but to the national and, in some instances, broaderscale interests. The Code was created for one of the oldest regions of Georgia which was of particular strategic, spiritual and economic significance for the country. In spite of certain independence, the region always acted in favour of national interests of the country. In this light, the Code of Laws analyzed in this article is one of the valuable written sources about mercantilism (even long before its foundation), the first doctrine of economic development of society, and certain elements of market economy doctrines.


Georgia, The Code of Laws by Beka and Agbuga, Mercantilism


The Laws by Beka and Agbuga (1963). Monuments of Georgian Law. Vol. 1. Tbilisi. (in Georgian).

Atanelishvili, T., Chikviladze, M., Silagadze, N. (2017). About State Financial Control. J. Ecoforum. Vol. 6. №1.

Atanelishvili, T., Silagadze, N. (2016). Evolutionary Aspect the Georgian Banking System. J. Ecoforum. Vol. 5. №2, 2016, pp. 157-161.

Atanelishvili, T. (2006). Economic Reforms in the Georgian Democratic Republic (1918-1921). Tbilisi University Publishing., Tbilisi.

Beradze, S., Tchanukvadze, G., Kvartsov, I. (1973). History of Economic Doctrines. Part 1, Tbilisi (in Georgian).

Zubiashvili, T., Atanelishvili, T. (2017). Some Aspects of National economic Doctrine.. J. Ecoforum. Vol. 6. №1.

Zubiashvili, T., Silagadze, L. (2016). Some Aspects of the Georgian Economy at the Contemporary Stage. J. Ecoforum. Vol. 5. №2, pp. 70-73.

Tevzadze, G. (1981-1982). Problems of History of Medieval Philosophy. Parts 1 and 2. Tbilisi (in Georgian).

Metreveli, R. (1972). Essays from the History of Feudal Georgia. Tbilisi (in Georgian).

Silagadze, A. (2017). Post-Soviet Paradoxes of Unemployment Rate. Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences V. 11, 2.

Silagadze, A. (2016). Historical Parallels of the National Economic Doctrines. J. Ecoforum. Vol. 5. №2, 2016, pp. 66-69.

Silagadze, A. (2013). Priorities for the Economy of Post-communist Georgia in the Context of the World Financial Crisis. J. Problems of Economic Transition (USA). Issue: Volume 56, Number 8 / December. 2013, pp. 3–16.

Silagadze, A., Atanelishvili, T. (2010). Aspects of Economic Doctrines in Georgia. Peninsula University of Technology, Business and Informatics. San Francisco (USA).

Silagadze, A. (2010). Economic Doctrines. Georgian National Academy of Sciences, "Innovation", Tbilisi. Approx. 611 p. (C./A.: Atanelishvili, T., Silagadze, N.).

Silagadze, A. (2010). Economic Thought in Feudal Georgia. The Caucasus & Globalization. Volume 4, Issue 3- 4, pp. 57–66. CA&CC Press, Sweden.

Silagadze, A. (2009). Physiocratic Economic Doctrines. "Innovation", Tbilisi, 40 p.

Silagadze, A. (2007). Economic Doctrine of the Middle Ages. Publication of Tbilisi University, Tbilisi, 40 p.

Silagadze, A., Atanelishvili, T.(2007). Mercantilist Economic Doctrine. "Innovation",Tbilisi, 66 p.

Silagadze, A., Atanelishvili, T., Goshadze, G., Demetrashvili, T., Zurabishvili,V. (2005). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Economics. Publication of Tbilisi University, Tbilisi, 822 p.

Silagadze, A. (2001). History of Economic Thought. Publication of Tbilisi University, Tbilisi, 610 p.

Silagadze, A. (1996). Some Aspects of the History of Economic Thought. Tb., 163 p.

Silagadze, N. (2011). Stages of Development of Banking System in Georgia – “Actual Economic Problems under Globalization.” Proceedings of Materials of International Scientific-Practical Conference Dedicated to the Foundation of Paata Gugushvili Institute of Economics. Tbilisi, pp. 262-264.

Силагадзе, A.Н., Сидоров, В.А., Ядгаров, Я.С. (2016). ФЕНОМЕН РЫНОЧНОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА: фундаментальные и прикладные основы. Тбилиси: Изд.-во «Универсал», 2016 –252 с.

Силагадзе, А., Атанелишвили, Т. (2010). Некоторые вопросы экономических доктрин в Грузии. Москва, «Взфэи», 51 с.

Tvalchrelidze, A., Silagadze, A. (2012). Capitalization of Mineral Commodities - World and Georgian Experiences. Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences V. 6,2, pp.170-173.

Kharitonashvili, J (1979). Retrospective of Economic Doctrines and Modern Problems. Book 1. Tbilisi.

Urbneli, N. (1890). Beka and Agbuga Atabags and their Laws. Tiflis. http://www. library. court.ge/upload/atabagni_beqa_da_aghbugha_da _maTi_ samartali.pdf 15.03.2017

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.