Nela Steliac, Dumitru Steliac


Circular economy is becoming an increasing concern for specialists due to the benefits it can have upon the environment and people. Although there are no well-defined indicators according to which the progress of a circular economy can be quantified, there is more and more concern in the specialised literature. This paper attempts to measure such progress within the EU member states via an aggregate indicator based on the indicators ones issued by the Eurostat in the EC monitoring framework. The indicator has been determined in two variants: one where the states missing some statistical data have been removed and another where the zero value has been attributed to all circumstances of unavailable data. The different determination methods have revealed different values of the circular economy aggregate indicator as well as different approaches of the states.


circular economy, circular economy aggregate indicator, linear economy, progress, ranking


AEM (2015), Mediul European – Starea şi Perspectiva 2015: Raport de Sinteză, Agenţia Europeană de Mediu, Copenhaga

Andersen, M.S. (2007), An introductory note on the environmental economics of the circular economy, Sustain. Sci. 2, pp. 133–140

Azevedo, S.G, Godina, R., de Oliveira Matias, J.C. (2017), Proposal of a Sustainable Circular Index for Manufacturing Companies, Resources 2017, 6, 63, https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9276/6/4/63, access on: 02.25.2019

Banaité, D. (2016), Towards circular economy: Analysis of Indicators in the Context of Sustainable Development, http://stics.mruni.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/STICS_2016_4_142-150.pdf, accessed on: 14.02.2019

Câmpeanu, V. (2016), Spre o economie circulară în Uniunea Europeană - soluţie pentru revigorarea economiei, http://oaji.net/articles/2016/3365-1480933922.pdf, access on: 25.01.2019

Căutișanu, C., Asandului, L., Borza, M. and Turturean, C., 2018, Quantitative Approach to Circular Economy in the OECD Countries, Amfiteatru Economic, 20(48), pp. 262-277

Comisia Europeană (2014), Spre o economie circulară: un program „deşeuri zero” pentru Europa, COM(2014) 398 final, Bruxelles

Comisia Europeană (2015), Pachetul de de măsuri privind economia circulară: întrebări și răspunsuri, Comisia Europeană, Bruxelles, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-15-6204_ro.htm, access on: 11.03.2019

Ellen MacArthur Foundation, (2015), Growth Within: a circular economy vision for a competitive Europe, https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/EllenMacArthurFoundation_Growth-Within_July15.pdf, access on: 9.03.2019

Ellen MacArthur Foundation, (2013) Towards the circular economy, Opportunities for the consumer goods sector, https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/TCE_Report-2013.pdf , access on: 9.03.2019

Elia, V., Gnoni, M.G., Tornese, F. (2017), Measuring circular economy strategies through index methods: A critical analysis, Journal of Cleaner Production vol. 142, pp. 2741-2751

Gallagher, J., Basu, B., Browne, M., Kenna, A., McCormack, S., Pilla, F. and Styles, D. (2017), Adapting Stand-Alone Renewable Energy Technologies for the Circular Economy through Eco-Design and Recycling, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 23(2), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319980093_Adapting_Stand-Alone_Renewable_Energy_Technologies_for_the_Circular_Economy_through_Eco-Design_and_Recycling, access on: 14.03.209

Geissdoerfer, M., Savaget, P., Bocken, N.M.P., Hultink, E.J. (2017), The Circular Economy – A New Sustainability Paradigm?, Journal of Cleaner Production, no 143, pp. 757–768

Geldron, A. (2014), Économie circulaire: notions, http://www.ademe.fr/sites/default/files/assets/documents/fiche-technique-economie-circulaire-oct-2014.pdf, access on: 9.03.2019

Geng Y, Doberstein B. (2008), Developing the circular economy in China: challenges and opportunities for achieving “leap frog development”, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World, vol, 15, pp. 231-239

Ghența, M., Matei, A. (2018), SMEs and the Circular Economy: From Policy to Difficulties Encountered During Implementation, Rev. Amfiteatru Economic, 20(48), pp. 294-

Ghisellini, P., Cialani, C., & Ulgiati, S. (2016), A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems, Journal of Cleaner Production, 114, 11–32

Lakatos, E.S., Crișan, O.A., Lakatos, D.G., Bejan, M. (2017), Paradigma economiei circulare. O provocare pentru orașul inteligent, Buletin AGIR nr.1, pp. 191-201

MacArthur, E. (2013), Towards the circular economy: Economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition. Cowes, UK: Ellen MacArthurs Foundation

Mihai, M., Manea D., Titan, E., Vasile, V. (2018), Correlations in the european circular economy, Economic Computation and Economic Cybernetics Studies and Research, Issue 4, Vol. 52, pp. 61-78

Mitrovic, D. (2018), Measuring Countries Competitiveness in Circular Economy - Composite Index Approach in Quantitative Models in Economics, University of Belgrade, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328759704_Measuring_Countries_Competitiveness_in_Circular_Economy_-_Composite_Index_Approach, access on: 10.03.2019

Nardo, M., Saisana, M., Saltelli, A., Tarantola, S., Hoffman, A., Giovannini, E. (2005), Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France

Ness, D. (2008), Sustainable urban infrastructure in China: towards a factor 10 improvement in resource productivity through integrated infrastructure system, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 15(4), pp.288-301.

OECD (2008), Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators. Methodology and user guide, https://www.oecd.org/sdd/42495745.pdfhttps://www.oecd.org/sdd/42495745.pdf, access on: 25.02.2019

Orțan, C., Ciomoș, A.O, Pavel, O.A., Lakatos, E.S. (2016), Economia circulară și domeniul componentelor electrice și electronice, a XVI-a Conferință internațională multidisciplinară, Sebeș, http://stiintasiinginerie.ro/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/29-28-ECONOMIA-CIRCULARĂ-ŞI-DOMENIUL-COMPONENTELOR-ELECTRONICE.pdf, access on: 7.03.2019

Park, J.Y. and Chertow, M.R. (2014), Establishing and testing the”reuse potential” indicator for managing wastes as resources, Journal of Environmental Management, 137, pp. 45-53.

Planing, P. (2015), Business Model Innovation in a Circular Economy Reasons for Non-Acceptance of Circular Business Models, Open Journal of Business Model Innovation, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273630392_Business_Model_Innovation_in_a_Circular_Economy_Reasons_for_Non-Acceptance_of_Circular_Business_Models, access on: 28.02.2019

Preston, (2012), A Global Redesign? Shaping the Circular Economy, Briefing Paper, https://www.biblioteca.fundacionicbc.edu.ar/images/d/d7/Bp0312_preston.pdf, access on:28.02.2019

Sauve, S., Bernard., S., Sloan, P. (2016), Environmental sciences, sustainable development and circular economy: Alternative concepts for trans-disciplinary research, Environmental Development, vol.17, pp. 48-56

Stahel, W.R. (2016), The circular economy, Nature News, volume 531, Issue 7595, p: 435, https://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/1.19594!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/531435a.pdf, access on: 10.02.2019

Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockström, J., Cornell, S.E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E.M., Biggs, R., Carpenter, S.R., de Vries, W., de Wit, C.A., Folke, C., Gerten, D., Heinke, J., Mace, G.M., Persson, L.M., Ramanathan, V., Reyers, B. and Sörlin, S., (2015), Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet; Science, [e-journal] 347(6223)

Strat, V.A., Teodor, C., Săseanu, A.S., (2018), The Characterization of the Romanian Circular Economy’s Potential, at County Level, Amfiteatru Economic, 20(48), pp.278-293.

Su, B., Heshmati, A., Geng, Y., Yu, X. (2013), A review of the circular economy in China: moving from rhetoric to implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 42, pp. 215– 227.

Vuță, M., Vuță, M., Enciu, A., Cioacă, S.I. (2018), Assessment of the Circular Economy’s Impact in the EU Economic Growth, Amfiteatru Economic, 20(48), pp. 248-261

Wijkman, A. & Skanberg, K. (2015), The circular economy and benefits for society: Swedish case study shows jobs and climate as clear winners, https://groenomstilling.erhvervsstyrelsen.dk/sites/default/files/media/final-version-swedish-study-13-04-15-till-tryck-ny.pdf, access on:10.02.2019

WRAP (2018), Smart Growth: the economic case for the circular economy, https://www.bitc.org.uk/sites/default/files/smart_growth_economic_case_circular_economy_may_2018.pdf, access on 11.02.2019

Yuan, Z.W. et al. (2006), The Circular Ecology: A New Development Strategy in China, Journal of Industrial Ecology 10, pp.4-8

Yi, L., Liu, Z. (2016), Establishment of Evaluation Index System on Construction Enterprise’s Circular Economy and Empirical Study, 4th International Education, Economics, Social Science, Arts, Sports and Management Engineering Conference (IEESASM 2016), Atlantis Press, pp. 695-698; https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/ieesasm-16/25861266, access on:11.03.2019

Zhu, D.J., Huang, X.F. (2005), Building Up a Model for Circular Economy Based on Object, Main Body, and Policy, Naikai Academic Journal 4, pp. 86-93.

Zhu, D., Qiu S. (2007), Analytical tool for urban circular economy planning and its preliminary application: a case of Shanghai, Urban Ecological Planning 31(3), pp.64-70 (In Chinese)




Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.