Liliana Scutaru


The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited number of variables such as household income, employment labour, consumption of goods and services, etc.. Perpetuation of this model has led, over time, to the company's inability to solve the problems facing mankind today and serious discrepancies regarding current levels of human development. This type of model does not take into account variables such as unemployment, poverty, education, health, environmental pollution, population migration, urban overcrowding, social inclusion etc. At the opposite side of this type of development, which proves to be beyond the crowd problems currently facing humanity, is a new alternative model, that of sustainable development, which provides an integrated view of all these variables and hence the chance of the human society to a new level of evolution. The sustainable development model of mankind put, among others, the zero growth issue or even sustained decrease for some countries. This model requires also reducing resource consumption and increase sustainability of assets created. It also offers practical solutions to many current problems of mankind, among which we can mention providing food for a growing world population and producing clean alternative energy.


economic growth; economic development; sustainable development; zero growth; sustained decrease; vicious circle of underdevelopment


D─âduianu Vasilescu, I. (1997) Mediul ┼či economia, Editura Didactic─â ┼či Pedagogic─â, Bucure┼čti, p. 10.

Hardwick, P., Langmead, J., Khan, B. (2002) Introducere ├«n economia politic─â modern─â, Editura Polirom, Ia┼či, p. 546.

Ignat, I., Pohoa┼ú─â, I., Lu┼úac, G., Pascariu, G. (2002) Economie politic─â, Edi┼úia a II-a, Editura Economic─â, Bucure┼čti, p. 503.

King, A., Schneider, B. (1993) Prima revolu┼úie global─â, Editura Tehnic─â, Bucure┼čti, pp. 37-38.

Kuznets, S. (1972) Cre┼čterea ┼či structura economic─â, Edition Calman ÔÇô Levy, p. 32.

Meadows, D., Meadows, D. (1972) The Limits of Growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, Universe Books, New York.

Nurkse, R. (1968) Les probl├Ęmes de la formation du capital dans les pays sous-d├ęvelopp├ęs, Edition Cujas, Paris, p. 23.

Perroux, F. (1981) Pour une philosophie du nouveau d├ęveloppement, Les Presses dÔÇÖUNESCO, Paris, p. 13.

Perroux, F. (1969) LÔÇÖEconomie du XX-├Ęme si├Ęcle, PUF, Paris, p. 191.

Popescu, I., Bondrea, A., Constantinescu, M. (2005) Dezvoltarea durabil─â. O perspectiv─â rom├óneasc─â, Editura Economic─â, Bucure┼čti, p. 22.

Pohoa┼ú─â, I. (2003) Filosofia economic─â ┼či politica dezvolt─ârii durabile, Editura Economic─â, Bucure┼čti, p. 82.

Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1996) Legea entropiei ┼či procesul economic, Vol. V, Editura Expert, Bucure┼čti.

Samuelson, P., Nordhaus, W. (2000) Economie politic─â, Editura Teora, Bucure┼čti, p. 632.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1974) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Edition Payot, Paris, p. 61.

Zoellick, R. (2008) World Bank President, The "New Deal for a Global Food Policy",

, Small encyclopaedic dictionary, Second Edition, Editura ┼×tiin┼úific─â ┼či Enciclopedic─â, Bucure┼čti, p. 296.

, Brundtland Report Our Common Future, Editura Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.

-14 June 1992, The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Documents. Multilingual/ Default. asp? Document ID=788ArticleID=1163,

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.